Tuesday, 14 February 2017

Torre Velasca, Milan

There are few modern buildings in the centre of Milan and Torre Velasca is a rare example. Built in 1957-58 to a design by BBPR Partners (R standing for Ernesto Rogers, cousin to Richard Rogers), it has 26 floors of which the upper 8 floors occupy a larger floor area giving the complete building a highly distinctive mushroom-like appearance. The architects claimed that its form echoed the shape of traditional Lombard defensive structures. Be that as it may, the principle advantage was the provision of additional floor space to maximise the rental potential.

The upper 8 floors of Torre Velasca are occupied by apartments; the lower floors are used for office accommodation. The architects took care to avoid excessive repetition by distributing the fenestration on a semi-random basis. The overall impact of the tower on its surrounding streets is less than might be expected given its stark unembellished presence. The austere concrete façade and the looming upper floors supported by muscular concrete brackets suggest a proto-Brutalism. YouTube has a short film, dialogue heavy (in Italian), for those who want to see more.

Friday, 10 February 2017

Funiculì Funiculà

Italian topography with extensive ranges of hills and mountains favoured the development of funicular railways of which some 14 still survive. A selection can be seen on these vintage postcards. The Neapolitan song Funiculì Funiculà was composed in 1880 to commemorate the opening of the Mount Vesuvius cable car service. The refrain travelled at speed around the world convincing many listeners that it was a traditional song in the public domain. It was borrowed on the basis of this misapprehension by Richard Strauss and Rimsky-Korsakov. Strauss was sued by the composer, Luigi Denza and compelled to pay for the privilege. Strangest of all is the arrangement for chamber orchestra written by Arnold Schoenberg in 1921.

Wednesday, 8 February 2017

Italian Line

When it comes to advertising passenger shipping there are a number of clearly defined conventions – the bow first plunge through the ocean waves, dressing for dinner on-board, champagne and cocktails in the lounge, sun-bathing on the deck etc. The first example here conforms to none of these. A contre-jour child is guided toward the light by a uniformed medic or stewardess while the looming super-natural presence of the rock suggests an object of worship or a place of sacrifice. This illustration is the first of a three page ad from Fortune magazine – flip the page and a more familiar approach is revealed.

The Italian Line was a Genoa-based passenger shipping line that offered transatlantic travel to North and South America. As that market declined they shifted to operating cruises and finally mutated into a cargo shipper with a fleet of container vessels. All except the last of these ads are aimed at the American traveller. The Italian market is tempted with more sophisticated imagery and the bare minimum of text.

Tuesday, 31 January 2017

Ironopolis – Bridging the River Tees

The Victorians gave the name Ironopolis to Middlesbrough at a time when it was the fastest growing town in Britain. A rapidly expanding steel industry attracted migrants from all over England, Scotland and Ireland to feed a massive demand for labour. Locals were justly proud of the industrial traditions that included the manufacture of the components for the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Tyne Bridge in Newcastle. After almost five decades of industrial decline, Middlesbrough today is an exemplar of Left Behind Britain. In 2015 the town was awarded the accolade of most deprived local council area in England. No surprise that Middlesbrough voted 65% in favour of leaving the EU.

The Transporter Bridge, opened in 1911, has been maintained in continuous working order although on the day of our visit it was out of action due to an electrical fault. The local authority has developed the bridge as a visitor attraction with an interpretation centre and a lift that takes the public to the overhead walkway. The lift was still in operation giving the opportunity to take photographs from the top. My father, in an unusually anecdotal mood, once told me how as a young man in the 1930s he made use of the bridge on his daily commute to central Middlesbrough. To avoid the expense of riding in the gondola, he, and many others would shoulder their bicycles and climb the metal staircase, cross over the top and descend on the other side. Given the height and constrained dimensions of the steps this was a prodigious feat of strength and co-ordination. With a north-easterly wind driving North Sea winter rain and sleet it must have been a major challenge. 

Our visit took place on a day of brilliant April sunshine, illuminating panoramic views of Teesside and the surviving blast furnaces, steel mills and chemical processing facilities. Ships still pass under the bridge with cargos of petro-chemicals and pipeline equipment for the North Sea oil industry is still produced in the shadow of the bridge. A melancholy sight visible from the bridge is the abandoned carcass of former British Rail vehicle ferry and party boat, the Tuxedo Royale that has been decaying here for more than 5 years. There is no registered owner and nobody to take responsibility for its fate. It’s too tempting to see it as a metaphor for the fate of British industry.

Thursday, 26 January 2017

More Faultfinding

It’s almost 10 years since we first looked at Find the Fault. Dennis Productions sold party games like this, decorously branded as the “Dainty Series” for more than 40 years from the 1920s to the mid 1960s. The party was pretty much over by the time they invested in this facelift with new illustrations in what might be called mid-century contemporary style. All extraneous detail has been eliminated along with much of the charm. What remains is brushed out areas of flat colour and expressionless drawing. The unintended result is a series of minimal compositions inhabited by rigid figures lost in existential introspection. The best estimate date is 1959 to 1962 and the pictures describe a Left Behind Britain that existed at the time, every bit as much as it does today. The Left Behind Britain of the 1960s was a rapidly decolonising former imperial power outside the European Union (or Common Market as it was then known). Governments and public alike were waking up to the fact that in Continental Europe a programme of infrastructure and industrial renewal had been underway for over a decade leaving Britain far behind in industrial productivity, transport networks, shipping handling and product development. Forty years inside the EU and this deficit was never fully overcome but we are assured that once we have escaped the dead hand of the EU a golden future will unfold. Our prosperity and quality of life will be the envy of the world. Britain will finally be open for business – just as soon as the doors are firmly locked and bolted. For more examples of fault finding, please follow the links, here and here.

Sunday, 15 January 2017

Postcard of the Day No. 86 – Courbevoie – La Gare

A resourceful postcard photographer has attracted a large and varied cast of characters to add vitality to his picture. Either side of centre is a group of postal workers and messengers and a grandmother in charge of a pram containing an over-sized child and a curious baby that peers out at the camera. Assorted ragamuffins and passing labourers make up the numbers. A girl on the extreme right walks off in the opposite direction in a gesture of independence. The station still exists and is served by Transilien services from Gare St-Lazare to the western and south western suburbs of Paris. In the 19th. century Courbevoie was a major industrial centre (home to Banania among others) but much of the industry has moved away leaving behind a largely residential suburb. The ostentatious corporate tower-scape of La Défense has occupied the southern district of Courbevoie since the 1970s – nine out of the ten largest businesses in France are now headquartered there.

Wednesday, 11 January 2017

Our Daily Bread (1927)

Those whose task it was to come up with ideas for trade, collector’s, confectionery or cigarette card made much use of this type of theme. From field to table, from forest to paper, from the ocean to the plate, from cocoa bean to chocolate bar, et al. They made a handy starting point for a 4 or 6 part narrative set in a world familiar to the consumer. These cards were issued by Liebig whose main pan-European business was the processing of animal carcasses into liquid form for bottled spreads or dried, compressed powder for shaping and packaging into stock cubes. Liebig’s range of cards for collectors encompassed an encyclopaedic range of subjects, accessible and obscure, such as Entomology, Botany, Zoology, the Classical Orders of Architecture, Lives of the Great Composers, the Triumphs of the Caesars, the Campaigns of Charlemagne and a Taxonomy of Earthworms. Adopting a high standard of illustration and production values was a key factor in retaining and expanding the customer base by appealing to the instincts of collectors. This set of cards shows an orderly universe where sober and industrious workers conduct themselves with the minimum of fuss in well-lit uncluttered workplaces.